Hentai (??Japanese writing, GV "transformation" or "deviation") is known in the West pornographic manga and anime. This includes the one for the Japanese anime "typical"-style pornography, on the other pornographic images of known characters from comics, cartoons or video games, it originally only came from Japanese media (such as Sailor Moon). Hentai-Anime in Japan account for five to ten percent of all produced anime. You can assign many hentai anime, other genres such as fantasy, science fiction or Magical Girl. Hentai stands in opposition to pornography with real people from the fact that there are a wide variety of representations that were not possible in real life (such as tentacles, Lolicon, or Shotacon Futanari).
Early examples of sexual depictions in the West come mainly from the horror genre, being raped, for example Urotsuki Douji, where young girls with monster tentacles. Also depicted are often unusual practices and fetishes such as bondage and voyeurism. In fact, however, all anime with explicit sexual depictions, even where those of the standard, known as Hentai. Hentai as spectacle is sometimes more acceptable than a simple porn, when administered as a horror, thriller or similar is camouflaged. Erotic Anime Hentai been in the West, paradoxically, by early presentable and have retained their reputation, even when kept pure manga porn on the west entrance.
In Japan, manga usually referred to as pornographic ero manga (?????, "erotic manga"), his comic (?????"comics for adults") or as 18-kin Manga (18???, "not for readers under denotes the age of 18 released manga "), you can but also as Ecchi na manga (??????," Kinky Comics "rewrite). Ecchi is the Japanized form of the English pronunciation of the letter H, which is why we also H na manga (H???can write). Ecchi / H is most likely derived from hentai. Also, H (na) Manga by Western fans as the most wrongly read hentai manga, which meant that Hentai is used in the West now as a genre name.
Hentai and Ecchi are often confused in the West. Unlike in Japan, both words to refer to manga and anime are used with sexual content, but differed according to severity of presentation. Unlike the concept Ecchi, which is commonly used in the West for more soft erotic anime and manga and its transition to Fanservice is fluid, has subscribed for hard hentai porn in all its varieties. The fans also encountered among German opinion that it would be exactly the reverse, is presumably derived from the journal Animania ago, the widespread this view to a change of editors. Computer games with hentai elements are called eroge. Is the only German dubbed the RPG Knights of Xentar At the time, and lay journals and magazines on CD-ROM in an adult version of USK-12.
In Japan, appeared early on works of art with erotic content. Even during the heyday of ukiyo-e, known as the Edo period, the woodcuts contained pornographic scenes with often surreal elements. The Japanese concept of obscenity is quite different from that of other cultures. Even for children can include naked anime characters, for example in Sailor Moon, where the figures shown nude during their transformation. Many mangaka draw erotic scenes in the context of Fanservice. Although produced in the West pornographic comics and cartoons, is the popularity of hentai and unmatched today. This is mainly because that restrict Western cartoonists who had a talent for pornographic content, their productions tend to the mainstream. In Japan, however, there are many artists who specialize exclusively in the drawing of hentai. This form of Japanese art was famous mainly for the Internet. Meanwhile, many Internet sites have emerged who are dedicated to only the representation of hentai. Also famous for Hentai-Doujinshi mangas are extremely popular.
pornography is illegal in Japan. The definition of obscenity is vague, but includes detailed and realistic depiction of sex organs and the sexual act. Although nominally banned, should in our opinion pornographic materials in Japan, but marketed under the name of erotica quite as long as the adult bodies covered with bars or with computer-mosaic effects will be distorted. For photographic pornography are here for a long time age restrictions: abbreviated So-called adult videos (AVs) not only made available to over 18-year-olds are related comics there is such age limit, but only since the early 1990s.
In Japan, there is no test center for pornographic material in the proper sense, only after publication of a work is found to be obscene and are then prohibited. Manufacturers must therefore exercise self-censorship to avoid costly for them to seize. Since the sale, but less strongly censored works much better to be continually challenged the boundaries of obscenity, and also repeatedly exceeded. Especially risky comics are often a trial published in small editions, to minimize the financial risk. In case of confiscation will appear a second more censored edition and already sold copies of the first edition will be on the second hand to coveted collectables.
The legal definition of obscenity, but allows several loopholes: Thus, in an earlier version of legislation only prohibited the display of adult genitalia, which may have fostered the success of so-called Manga Lolicon (short for Lolita Complex). To prevent the proliferation of sex comics with some very young girls, the law was amended in the late 1980s: the previous ban on pubic hair (a criterion for adult genitalia) was abandoned, and that is explicitly prohibited the display of genitals. Therefore, the pubic region was released very early in the Eromanga easy, or just draw the silhouette of a penis. More detailed representations had to be covered with bars. Another loophole represent phallusahnliche objects such as dildos or tentacles, which are excluded from such censorship - at least until they get into a vagina. Ultimately, censorship can not completely avoid.
Even in mainstream works that would not necessarily be regarded as pornographic, was the portrayal of sex always risky, and in the early 1990s, comics like Blue triggered by Naoki Yamamoto and Angel by U-Jin a controversy that Finally, the introduction of its comic-led label. This means printing comics for adults and highlights the above mentioned age limit. But since it formally created a genre of comics for adults and a system had been established for minors, was also the way paved for less censorship. The beams were obscure from then on always smaller and usually only a part of the glans penis or clitoris, or it's pixelated, and you can see less of the intimate zones. On 25 February 2008 it was announced that will start with a review of the Youth Protection Act in Japan. As causes for the sharp increase of cases in which children were victims of pornography,  and the accusation of the United States, Japan would allow known child pornography.
Eromanga already cover the content has always been a wide range of sexual practices and fetishes. The action was hardly affected by the censors and is sometimes much more extreme than would be possible in the West. For Western publications will be made for these substantive changes (such as dialogues, age of the characters, etc.). The Internet is widely known as hentai, but also much unadulterated Japanese original material.
Especially in German-speaking anime today are still often equated with hentai. This has something to do especially with the media (both newspaper and television) to: Many limited their coverage of manga and anime's motto is "sex sells" to the hentai genre. The fact that the characters appear in Hentai sometimes very young, are you doing the rest. Furthermore, the proportion of the hentai anime video releases in Germany until the mid-1990s, very high (over 30 per cent), in many video stores any other anime are available. In addition, sometimes also referred to as hentai anime which contain few explicit sex scenes, unusual for German viewing habits, but this genre really is not to be assigned, such as Ninja Scroll and Wicked City.
Anime [anime] (Japanese???) is an abbreviation of animation (Japanese???????anim?shon) and designated outside of Japan, especially in Western countries, Japan produced animated films. In Japan, anime itself stands for all kinds of animated films, for in their own country as well-produced and imported.
While European and American cartoons aimed primarily at a younger audience, child-friendly content and comedy to the fore, and therefore represent different genres rather marginal phenomenon, there is a wide range of topics on anime for all ages. Of literary adaptations (eg, The Diary of Anne Frank) about horror to science fiction, almost all areas and age groups are covered. Also, there are genres of anime, which occur almost exclusively in these (eg Mecha series of oversized) big robots. One focus of the productions, however, is also in Japan for television series for children and adolescents, which is often expected something more "than in Western children's films usual. Thus violence, for example by squirting blood, presented in more detail. However, sexual innuendo, which give the characters sometimes very liberally be tolerated. The result is that some of these series are censored in other countries before the broadcast.
Anime is an integral part of Japanese cultural heritage. The importance of the Anime in Japan can be seen from the fact that the three (until 2003) most successful films in Japan - Princess Mononoke, Pokemon: The Movie, and Spirited Away - are all anime. In addition, the entertainment industry in Japan, the anime as manga has been produced, with considerable cost 80 billion euros in sales a year. Each year there are up to 200 new series on the market .
Anime television series have, as well as Western cartoon series, usually 13, 26 or 52 episodes, so that is achieved with a weekly broadcast will run for one quarter, half or whole year. Such an interval is called a quarter Cours (???, kuru). In contrast to Western series, most anime series are not designed as Endlosserien, although particular manga adaptations often can come to well over 100 episodes. In addition to television series and movies, there is another format for Anime: OVA () Original Video Animation, also OAV (Original Animated Video) called specifically for the purchase of video and DVD market produced anime called. The target group are mostly young adults, so the contents are usually equipped with a lot of Fan service.
In 2000, the Japanese anime television series broadcast 124. It culminated in 2006 with 306 series 2008 288 series have been sent. During the spring season starting in April 2006 60 of which were new titles and in 2009 30 new titles. The initial increase in the number of anime is due to the fact that have been used since the late 90s, the midnight program places for anime is made while the real gain with the sales of video (VHS, DVD, Blu-Ray), but also that by the great success of Neon Genesis Evangelion, more and more studios, video companies and publishers could produce works. By the time a recovering economy and strong coverage of the growing popularity of anime in overseas and the "Moe-boom" but also invested in enterprises such as financial-industry and new IT companies in these earlier niche market. The decline since 2006 is attributed to the declining birth rates and economic recession.  Japanese TV stations, but are also starting to supplying directly to the foreign market. As posited in the U.S., the decline of the market size for Anime from 4.8 billion U.S. dollars in 2003 to 2.8 billion U.S. dollars for 2007, mainly with the Fansubbing scene in context, the series shortly after they premiered on Japanese television subtitled published via file sharing, TV Tokyo began in January 2009 to publish the first major television networks, its anime only hours after their broadcast on Japanese television abopflichtigen English subtitles on a website .
Most of anime and anime series based on the successful manga (such as Akira, Ghost in the Shell, or Rurouni Kenshin). There are however occasionally the reverse case, marked with the result of a successful anime comic book is an appropriate (for example, Neon Genesis Evangelion, and Tenchi Muyo!). Sometimes, the manga will not be redrawn, but are composed of individual pictures of Anime and inserted balloons, which will, in the absence of a standardized terminology commonly called "anime comic called" (for example Oh My Goddess or Card Captor Sakura). Often the computer game industry in the anime production is involved (for example. Hack, Pokemon, Yu-Gi-Oh!), Which based on the anime and computer-produced console games. Today, the production is mostly done through a so-called "production committee" composed of companies from different industries, including publishers, studios and video game industry, but also food companies. It is introduced by all parties and the rights allocated capital at work. The production of the various media often happens simultaneously, so that simultaneously appear to the anime manga, novels and other items. 
As in movies is the music used in the anime as an important artistic tool. With anime soundtracks in Japan made a lot of money, as they often sell themselves as well as chart-topping albums. For this reason, anime music is often composed and performed by top musicians. Skilled composers for the background music is widely regarded by the fans. Among the better-known composers include, for example, Joe Hisaishi, Yuki Kajiura, Yoko Kanno and Kenji Kawai. Music is most often used in anime to play as background music to the mood of a scene, or as a theme for a character. Anime with a leader using a preload song (opening song, OP) as an introduction. This topic fits the overall tone of the program usually enthusiastic and serves to the audience for the subsequent program. Between (insert song) and a closing song (ending song, ED) often comment on the action or the program as a whole and are often used to highlight a particular important scene. These songs are often sung by popular musicians or Japanese Idols, but also by the speakers (Seiy?), which are in turn to idols. Thus, they are a very important part of the program. In addition to these music publishing issues, the spokesman of a certain anime, CDs for their character, called the Image Album. Despite the word image contain only music and / or text passages in which sings to the listener or the speaker or speaks about himself, making the listener think that the character himself is singing or talking. A different kind of anime CD releases are Drama CDs: plays, which tell the speaker a story that does not occur often in the anime.
One of the most well-known Japanese animation studio is Studio Ghibli, which formed in 1985 under the direction of Hayao Miyazaki a box office hit after another (such as Princess Mononoke 1997, Spirited Away in 2001, Howl's Moving Castle, 2004). His biggest international success celebrated with Studio Ghibli Spirited Away. The film was awarded in addition to numerous international audience and critics prizes in 2002, the Golden Bear at the Berlinale in 2003, the Oscar for best animated film, making it the most awarded animation of all time.
According to a study conducted in 2005 Japanese anime cartoonist working on average 10.2 hours per working day or 250 hours per month. Two-thirds of all subscribers earn less than 3 million yen (approximately 21,700 euros) per year, 27% give even an annual salary of less than 1 million yen (about 7,200 in euros). 80% of all subscribers are working on a fixed payment scheme in which they per frame on average 186.9 yen (about 1.35 euro).
The first anime in Germany was the film The Wizard and the Bandit (Japanese:??????Sh?nen Sarutobi sasuke , Eng. Magic Boy) by Toei Animation in 1959. He had his German Releasedate on 16 March 1961. Since then, the German cinema more than 30 anime films were shown, including Akira (1991), Ghost in the Shell (1997), Perfect Blue (2000) and several productions of Studio Ghibli like Princess Mononoke (2001), Spirited Away (2003) and Howl's Moving Castle (2005). The highest ever viewing figures were the three films shown in the cinema for the Pokemon series.
The first anime series on German television was Speed Racer (Tatsunoko Productions, 1967) were from November 1971 to December 1971 in the ARD, but demonstrated only three of the original eight planned episodes. Due to protests from parents, educators and the media have already announced the fourth episode was canceled at short notice. In the spring of 1973, two sequels were made without notice as a replacement for lost Asterix broadcasts into the program, then the series was completely sold after fresh protests.
With the exception of Captain Future, against which there were many protests from parents and warned against in the 1980s, even years in some textbooks, was covered on German television anime series for a long time only kindergarten and primary school children (for comparison: The age range of in France, Spain and Italy have reached the end of the broadcast anime-1970s) up to older teens. That it was in these cartoons to Japanese productions, is even today still partially unknown.
On 11 January 1988 was embodied in the music video player musicbox of private tele-5th In his afternoon program Bim Bam Bino been since 1989 for the first time in Germany, also broadcast anime for older children and adolescents. Series such as Miyuki, Mila Superstar (Japanese Attack No. 1) The Queen of a Thousand Years (Japanese Tale of the Bamboo Monogatari Sennen Joo Shin) and Saber Rider and the Star Sheriffs (Japanese: Sei Jushi Bismark) led to the founding of the first anime fan club in Germany, but often limited to the particular series. After the conversion of Tele 5 in the German Sports Television (DSF) on 1 January 1993 were adopted only some of these anime from other private channels.
Experienced a significant boost the German anime fan scene through the five seasons and 200 episodes long series Sailor Moon (Japanese Bish?jo Senshi Sailor Moon). The first television season ran from October 1995 to September 1996 on ZDF, however, was not specifically mentioned because of their transmission time for the middle of a cartoon program block by most television magazines. It was only through the re-broadcast from May 1997 on RTL 2 Sailor Moon, whose primary target audience in Japan were really girls at puberty, the cult of a new factor Fanbewegung. This trend continued through other series such as Dragonball. To this day, on German television anime play a minor role. In addition to public broadcasters, which are confined mostly to the repetition of well-known anime children's series, RTL 2, only sends a continuous, constantly updated anime program. There are also some stations that broadcast at irregular intervals radiating series or, for example, VIVA, MTV, Cable 1 and GIGA. Also, the pay-TV anime channel Animax offers its program in Germany. The presented by VOX anime does not originate from the transmitter itself, but in the DCTP sold to third-party program blocks provided.
The first German buying anime, it was in 1975 on so-called TED videodisc (abbreviation of Television discs), analog vinyl picture disks that had a duration of about 10 minutes per side and are read by only one player of the Telefunken could. You have already disappeared in the following year by the market. In the anime it offered it was about individual episodes of the series Speed Racer, Hotte Hummel, Judo Boy and Calimero (a Japanese)-Italian co-production. The first full anime feature film, which you could buy in Germany, the film was Perix the cat and the three Mausketiere (Japanese???????nagagutsu where Haita neko) by Toei Animation from 1969, the end of the 1970s has been offered years by the Company piccolo film on Super 8 mm film (sound / color, 2 rolls of 120 m running track, playing time approximately 90 minutes). 
In the 1980s a number of anime on VHS cassettes appeared, but it is mostly a question of children's series and was directed not to the origin of the series or movies. For example, the film The Castle of Cagliostro was released in a coming from France, heavily cut version under the title cleans Hardyman. At that time, with Angel, the Flower (Japanese:???????hana no ko runrun) and the first Magical Girl Series available on VHS in Germany.  The first VHS tape, which should target fans of Japanese animation will be addressed and in which Japan was specifically mentioned as a country of production, came from the year 1986. At that time, were under the label "Japan Home Video" individual episodes of the series The Adventures of Honeybee Hutch, Demetan the frog boy and Macross released, was taking care to leave the original material stability as possible - the Japanese pros and credits are preserved, and occurring Japanese songs were left in place. "Japan Home Video" in 1987 but disappeared from the market.
The next attempt at a German Anime own label began in 1995 with the film Plastic Little, who in an official edition of 2500 appeared to VHS tapes and was also the first German buy anime in the Japanese original version with German subtitles. It subsequently became more and more anime videos buying public (eg, Gunsmith Cats, Bubblegum Crisis, Devil Hunter Yohko). The problem occurs in this case that the fans preferred the original versions with subtitles as were necessary for the mass market rather dubbed versions, broke with the advent of DVD, in both formats could be offered simultaneously. Also on the media Laserdisc animes were released. The classic Ghost in the Shell (film 1995, Discjahr 1999) and Wicked City (film 1996, Discjahr 1998) and Fist of the North Star (movie 1996, Discjahr 1998) published in the German dubbed version.
Manga (Japanese:??, such as: casual, boisterous picture) is the Japanese word for comics.
Similar to the Western concept of manga comic is also rather fuzzy in its meaning and includes both static picture stories, short comic strips and cartoons, for example, with a cartoon. In order to distinguish them better from comics in book form can for Japanese cartoons, but has established worldwide, the use of specialized word Anime. As a majority of manganese is in German, both the "manga" and "the manga" normal. In Japan, the term "manga" on an equal footing with "comic" (????komikku) for all types of comics, used regardless of their origin. In contrast to the Japanese Manga comics are known as manhwa from South Korea and comics from the Chinese space as Manhua. In the West we usually only initially described with manga comics from Japan, but now the term is mainly used by comic book publishers increasingly for comics from other countries that focus on Japanese-style productions. International will be discussed, especially in fan circles, however, whether any works may be non-Japanese artist known as "manga". While the English-speaking world for English-speaking artists of comics drawn in a manga style by now, the term "original English-language manga" (or "OEL manga") has naturalized in the German has been enforced, no uniform expression.
Many modern manga are more than picture-heavy on text. They are located primarily in black and white and are in line with the traditional Japanese reading of "read back" to "front" and from right to left. For an overview of characteristic visual and plot elements, see the style elements of manga and anime.
The oldest known forerunner of the Japanese comic art are drawings and cartoons from the early 8th Century, which were discovered in 1935 during restoration work on H?ry? Temple in Nara on the back of ceiling beams. Buddhist monks have started early, illustrated stories draw on paper rolls. The best known of these works is the first of four Ch?j?giga (????, bird and animal caricatures) of the monk Toba Sojo (1053-1140): This is a satire in which animals behave like monks . In the 13th Century, people began to decorate temple walls with drawings of animals and of life after death. This form has been in the 16 Century transferred to woodcuts, while also drawing from everyday life to erotic pictures were added.
Double side band, four of the Hokusai Manga - people and animals while swimming (1816) From the late 17th Century emerged called ukiyo-e woodblock images that had the carefree life of sexual exploits to the content and found quickly mass distribution. The concept of manga is its real author is unknown, was made popular by the ukiyo-e master Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849). The Hokusai Manga are sketches that were published in 15 volumes, and do not tell a coherent story, but represent snapshots of Japanese society and culture during the late Edo period (1603-1868). In the early 18th Century created the directory named after the monk Toba Sojo, called Toba-e: books in which were black and white woodcut prints with Integrated Text ongoing stories and were mainly satirical or funny content. In the 19th Century, Toba-e is the most popular reading material in Japan.
After completion of the closure of Japan and the increasing openness to the outside won in the second half of the 19th Century, the Western publishing industry influence. In addition to new, improved printing techniques, they took their inspiration from the style of European cartoons that contributed to its prevalence in Japan, the satirical magazine The Japan Punch (1862-1887, founded by Charles Wirgman) and Toba (from 1887, founded by Georges Bigot), and from the emerging in the U.S. comic strips by artists like Richard Outcault and Rudolph Dirks. As the first precursor of manganese in today's meaning in 1902 subscribed by Rakuten Kitazawa (1876-1955) history, and Tagosakus Mokube is visiting Tokyo. Kitazawa, who made the term "manga" in its modern popular meaning, also founded 1905 the satirical magazine Tokyo Puck - named after the British (later American) satirical magazine Puck  - and in 1932 the first Japanese school for cartoonists. Despite increasing attempts by the Japanese government restrictions could keep such graphic materials in Japan until World War II. During World War II initiated the Japanese government after the dissolution of many groups of manga artist 1940, the state umbrella organization, Shin Nippon Mangaka Kyokai (Association of New manga artist in Japan "), and manganese were deliberately used as war propaganda.
Soon after the war were founded many new small publishers. The most influential pioneers of modern manga, the doctor was Osamu Tezuka (1928-1989), who worked alongside as a draftsman for one of these small publishers. Influenced by the style of the early Disney cartoons, and from French and German Expressionist films, he gave in the early 1950s on his career and not only developed the foundations of today's manga-style, but also the basis for the modern anime industry. One of his most famous works is the world Tetsuwan Atomu (English Astro Boy), in German-speaking but he is better known for his television series Kimba the White Lion. Of the Japanese fans Tezuka received the honorary title for his achievements Manga no Kamisama (God of Manga awarded).
Have evolved with time at various sub-manga for almost every target group, for example, divided by age (from toddlers up to Silver Manga Manga for the Elderly), sexual orientation (eg, Hentai, Yuri and Yaoi), hobbies or disciplines (eg Jidaigeki to) deal with Japanese history. In manga for young people distinguish between subjects for girls (Sh?jo) and for boys (Sh?nen), in manga for adults between subjects for Women (Josei) and men (His). The transition is often blurred. These distinctions were made outside of Japan, although less sharply. Parallel to the main commercial market for manga produced developed shortly after World War II so-called alternative manga for which the artist Yoshihiro Tatsumi coined in the late 1950s the concept Gekiga. This independent movement, which was directed more to an adult audience, enabling artists in comparison to the prevailing trends with greater freedom in expression and style. But when the big manga publishers began with the publication of alternative magazines and Gekiga series such as Golgo 13 is developed into new trendsetters in the commercial sector, which went Gekiga movement largely in the "mainstream manga.
As D?jinshi or d?jin is known by fans subscribed unofficial sequels or alternative histories to known anime or manga or games. In Japan, they are often published by small publishers, or in specialized individual initiative. The twice a year held in Tokyo Comic Market (aka Comiket ") is not only the largest d?jin Fair in Japan, but with over 40,000 exhibitors and over 450,000 visitors, even the largest comic event in the world. In the autumn of 2000, manga and anime, the Japanese government officially recognized as a separate, eligible art form.
In Japan, the best known and most widely manga figure in 1969 resulting blue robot cat Doraemon. Manga drawings are also beyond the pure storytelling wide application, such as cook books, manuals or instructions.
Since 1997, the number has risen to Manga Kissa strong in Japan. These are compounds in coffee and Manga Library, offering next manga to read on the spot, many amenities.
Among the most important prizes awarded in the manga field include the oldest award of the same name, launched Verlag 1956 Shogakukan Manga Award for best manga and awarded since 1977 Kodansha Manga Award and since 1997 by the newspaper Asahi Shimbun awarded annually in four categories Osamu Tezuka Culture Award for outstanding draftsman and persons or institutions who have rendered special services to manga.
Comparable to American comic adaptations are available in the Japanese film industry since the turn of the century increasing efforts to implement, as a real Manga movies or series; Examples include touch, Ichi the Killer, Oldboy, or Uzumaki. More and more Japanese directors have grown up with manga, and progress of effects technology now enables the adaptation of even the most complex scenes. In addition, can be achieved without major promotional effort for the implementation of a manga fans of the original work . Among the most successful live action films of manganese in recent years include the TV series Great Teacher Onizuka (1998), whose final episode, the highest ever achieved ratings of a series finale was on Japanese television, and film to Nana (2005), with the box office results came of the equivalent of approximately 29 million euros at position 5 of the most successful Japanese films this year. With Death Note (2006) implementation is a manga first designed from the outset as a two-part movie version.
Manga is one of the main pillars of Japan's publishing industry. In 2002, they accounted for 38.1% of all printed matter in Japan, of which nearly 28% of manga magazines, and nearly 11% on paperbacks accounted manga (comics in Germany include only about 3% of all printed matter). Statistically, one per year, 15 Japanese Manga (Germany buys: 0.25 Comics per capita per year). The sales figures show is currently a new trend: whereas in 2004 the total income of manga magazines (still at about 255 billion yen and manga paperbacks at about 250 billion yen at that time together some 3.7 billion euros) were [ 6], decreased in 2005, the revenues for manga magazines by 5% to 242.1 billion yen (and were only about 70% of revenue in 1995), while revenues in manga paperbacks, at 4, 2% to 260.2 billion yen, increased . 2005 was also the first year in the Japanese publishing history, in which were the total revenues earned by manga paperbacks higher than that of manga magazines.
The total circulation of all the manga (magazines and paperback) in 2004 was in Japan, 1.38 billion copies, which meant a decrease from the previous year by 3.5%. For those taking place since the peak of the manga boom mid-1990s, reducing the market including the decline in birth rates in Japan will be held accountable especially since the early 1980s. The total circulation of manga magazines was 2005 compared to the previous year, averaging just 7%. Weekly Shonen Jump, the most successful magazine that experienced in 2005 with nearly three million copies sold per week declined by "only" 1.4% compared to 2004, the mid-1990s had been sold by the magazine, however, still six million copies per week. While the average manga series, for example, in 1997 came with an initial print run from 300,000 to 500,000 copies per volume in the trade, can achieve the most successful single volumes first editions in the millions. Currently holds the record for Volume 27 of the series One Piece: But from the first edition of which appeared in February 2003 sold 2.63 million copies.
Authors of manga are called mangaka. There are several ways in Japan to become a mangaka, for example, by a victory in a drawing competition, or by a successful application for a publishing house. In general, it starts as an assistant for "beginner work" in the designer team of an already successful manga artist. Over time, you can work your way within the team and possibly get the chance to separate manga projects. It is estimated that tens of thousands of characters ever in Japan wizard, from which most of the absence of opportunities for advancement, however, after a relatively short period of time exiting. Also, most of the approximately 3,000 full-time Japanese mangaka can not alone make a living by drawing contest and have to rely on secondary activities or financial support. Only about 300 artists to live exclusively on drawing manga - as a particularly well-known mangaka with a long-running manga series and great teams.
Manga, according to Andreas Platthaus in the West take the glory for himself claim Comics (previously more focused on the interests of male readers) were first becoming too popular among girls and young women made.  In Japan itself, this is nothing unusual because there at least since the 1970s-years, manganese are produced specifically for women. Especially in German speaking countries but now it has even led to the worldwide unique impact that manga are mostly consumed by female readers.
The first in the U.S. published manga was Barefoot Gen, which was published in 1978 by a group operating in San Francisco and Tokyo Fan Translation group private, but after a short time set. Wider distribution soon found out two short stories by Shinobu Kaze: His ten-page History of Violence Becomes Tranquility released in March 1980 in the comic magazine "Heavy Metal" and the six-story Heart And Steel in February 1982 in the magazine "epic". In December 1982 Educomics attempted to Barefoot Gen titled I Saw It re-publish. In edited by Art Spiegelman avant-garde magazine, RAW was published in May 1985 several short stories by artists of the Japanese magazine Garo. As of May 1987 was published by First Comics, the manga series Lone Wolf & Cub, the first volumes due to increased sales success had to be reprinted after a short time. That same year brought out Eclipse Comics, the manga series Kamui, Mai the Psychic Girl "and" Area 88 appears as a bi-weekly comic books. In 1988, Marvel Comics came with the release of Akira, one of the pioneers of the global manga and anime has spread. The first manga in the U.S. were to match the rest of the comic book format publications on albums enlarged and flipped on Western has been reading. In this phase, most manga characters were, therefore, apparently left-handed, and Japanese characters on signs and posters were printed to front.  As the first original Japanese manga series in reading order in the U.S. may have appeared as early as 1989 Panorama of Hell at Blast Books [ 12], but only the publishing house brought Tokyopop manga series from 2002 consistently out which side. In 2005 the turnover of the North American manga market, about 125 to 145 million euros , and among the 100 best-selling comic books in the U.S. were 80 manga volumes .
The first manga published in Europe from late 1969 to late 1971, more chapters in a French sports magazine battle. The first manga published in Spanish, the Gekiga-short story "Good-Bye by Yoshihiro Tatsumi in 1980 was in issue No. 5 of the underground comic magazine" El Vibora, "the magazine published over the next few years, other stories of this artist. The first manga series was published in Spanish from 1984 Candy Candy Corazon. 1990 Glenat began with the French publication of Akira. The manganese content in the French comic market rose from 10% in 2001  to 22% in 2006 . The manga market in the UK developed later than in most other European countries. While in 2001 some 100,000 volumes of manga have been sold with a total turnover of the equivalent of 2 million euro, in 2005 there were nearly 600,000 manga volumes with a total turnover of the equivalent of 7.6 million euros. Most manga in the UK are imported from the U.S., the UK's first manga publishing house was founded in August 2005.
The manga was first published in Germany, the individual volumes Barefoot Gen - A pictorial history against the war from Keiji Nakazawa (Rowohlt Verlag, 1982; longer version from Carlsen Verlag 2004), Heine in Japan by Keiko Ogata (Verlag der Goethe-action Dusseldorf 1988) [ 18] and Japan Ltd. from Shotaro Ishinomori (Publisher Norman Rentrop 1989), and a chapter of the series Kozure ?kami under the title The wolf and its young in the comics anthology "Macao" (Borchert & Querengasser 1989; longer version from Carlsen Verlag 1996 -1997, full version of Planet Manga since 2003). While in other European countries like Italy and Spain since the mid-1980s, a rapidly-increasing manga-formed market, established the genre in Germany permanently until the 1990s. The first full series was published in German in 1991 Akira, and manganese were first on the American and French model mirrored on "Western" reading on albums picture enlarged and spread over more volumes. The first afforded in reading German original Japanese release, the three-volume series of Genji Asakiyumemishi, appeared in 1992 in Okawa-Verlag, the final breakthrough for which side of manga, however, only came in late 1996 with the series of Dragonball Carlsen Verlag.
Meanwhile, only appear in the main German manga publisher Carlsen Comics, Egmont Manga and Anime (EMA), Tokyopop, Planet Manga (Panini Comics Manga-label) and Heyne each year over 800 manga books. Published At Carlsen-Verlag is also the monthly manga magazine Daisuki. Not all German manga projects are successful: for example, had the manga magazines and Manga Manga Power Twister EMA due to insufficient sales and BANZAI! recruited by Carlsen because of licensing problems again.
A cartoon is a graphic that a comic or satirical story in a picture - usually with a punch line -. Originally used for the visual joke no words. Seriously subscribed Comments on the political events of the day, with critical intent be described as a caricature. The transition is smooth. Picture stories of several panels are called comic. Cartoons published mainly in newspapers and magazines. The term comes from the French cartoon = cardboard carton and originally referred to board drawn designs for frescoes and tapestries. In English (animated) cartoon cartoons also called.
In the U.S. and British newspapers of the cartoon has a broad tradition. Well-known magazines like The New Yorker (founded adorn 1925), each issue with a large number of cartoons and cartoonists employ their own. The British satirical magazine Punch (founded 1841) printed the first cartoons in the modern sense. Punch Cartoon coined the term in the English language, which at first was meant ironically, but then became a regular term for humorous drawings. Dialogues between the protagonists were printed under the drawing. The cartoons of Punch dealt not only with policy but attacked - often in a very succinct way - "hot" social issues on situation comedy and everyday conflicts. It was and is the difference of the cartoons on political cartoons and images on abusive individuals (whose tradition traced back to ancient times can): Also a cartoon can potentially transform every aspect of social life in a pithy, witty pictorial narrative, as a comic drawing however, has its own entertainment value and not only as a cursory comment on current affairs or political criticism validity. He is an art form that has its place alongside other small forms such as the anecdote. The distinction drawn into a mere joke is that the cartoon may dispense with the drawing, not because they contribute significantly to the comic. Accompanying texts and dialogues of the protagonists are painted in cartoon usually very short and pointed and are printed above or below the image and inserted in balloons. Most cartoons are drawn and written by one person, but there are also firmly cooperating teams of illustrators and copywriters, for example, Katz and Goldt or No news. The content is very wide range of cartoons - they range from simple puns on the comic treatment of the politics of the day, to drawings, based on the comic ironic quotations of pop culture. As in the comics and animated cartoons are also elements of the graphic itself the subject of the narrative and the subject of comedy. Cartoonists often develop a unique graphic style that gives them recognition and help in the highly competitive market, finding a position.
The first German-language magazines that printed cartoons that were satirical magazine Kladderadatsch (founded 1848), Nebelspalter (founded 1875) and Simplicissimus (founded 1896). Most prominent artist of Kladderadatsch were Wilhelm Gustav Scholz and Brandt. Simplicissimus worked for Thomas Theodor Heine and Olaf Gulbransson. Until 1933, Germany had a variety of print products that compete with cartoons to readers. During the Nazi, they were banned or changed their stance. Thomas Theodor Heine was one of many graphic artists who emigrated abroad.
Cartoons printed in the postwar period especially magazines like Stern, twen and Quick. On daily and weekly newspapers preferred to the dry political caricature. The German Cartoon Art was intended rather staid humor, such as the hedgehog Mecki in the program guide HORZU. Exceptions were the sophisticated image and the satirical humor of Loriot illustrations by Kurt Halbritter. Also in the marketing of the cartoon was used as the comic series of the tips of the gasoline service station gasoline chain was illustrated by this graphic form.
"The miraculous multiplication of money." Cartoon from Waldah The crucial change in the mode of appearance, technology and dissemination of this art form in Germany until the 1960s and 1970s by the artists of the New Frankfurt School: FW Bernstein, Robert Gernhardt, Clovis Poth and FK Waechter shaped founded with its anarchic humor, the satirical magazine Pardon (1962) and especially their nonsense Supplement world in the mirror (WIMS). Even Hans Traxler, who was about ten years older than the young editors of Pardon, joined the group. Because the publisher, Hans A. Nikel changed the course of the booklet and WIMS was discontinued in 1976, founded 1979, the quarter-staff satire magazine Titanic, which became the new forum for cartoonists. From 2000, formed later in the Cologne area with the satirical magazine ZYN! there also a center for many new comics and cartoonists, including the well-known artist emerged as Joscha Sauer, Gernot Gunga, Michael and Christian Holtschulte Bogle. The Titanic generation before 2000 paved the way for the cartoonists of today, some of which - how about Uli Stein - also demonstrate financial success, and exports to foreign countries. Cartoons are now found in almost all major German daily newspapers and weekly newspapers, often in a prominent place, and thus became again the determining factor in sales. On the German book market for cartoon anthologies have local artist now - in contrast to the comic book market - an important role, where once American, French and Belgian cartoonist prevailed. Since entering the Internet age, so-called flash cartoons gained more and more popular. Today, there are already numerous clips circulating on the World Wide Web, often with satirical content.